Software architecture is a crucial element of any project, regardless of its size. There are several different types of architectural patterns. Each pattern solves a common problem. Architectural infrastructures are sets of components designed to address major architectural difficulties. Most of these frameworks and infrastructures are targeted at a particular domain. In this article, we’ll take a look at some of the different types of architectural infrastructures. You’ll learn how to apply each pattern to your software.
Lessons from Notflix application
The Netflix application uses Cassandra as its database for storing older viewing records. This NoSQL database is able to scale in terms of data volume, as well as heavy writing and reading. As Netflix grew in size, its viewing history data per member increased as well. Netflix scaled its storage of viewing history data with two goals in mind: it wanted consistent read/write performance and to maintain the same level of application performance as the number of members increased. The Cassandra database has a 9:1 write to read ratio, which allows Netflix to process a large volume of data at once without sacrificing performance.
To ensure ACID compliance, Netflix uses two different databases: MySQL and InnoDB. Both of these databases use a master-master setup to deliver data. Unlike other databases, InnoDB uses synchronous replication protocol, which means that a write will only be acknowledged if both the remote master node and the primary master node confirm that the write has been completed. This method ensures consistency and high availability.
Examples of software architecture patterns
As the name implies, software architecture patterns are structural layouts that have proven to be successful for other software projects. These patterns help solve common software design issues and make it easier to plan a software project. These patterns should not be used to plan the whole project, but rather to solve specific problems. Software architects have long recognized that patterns can make their work easier, and they’ve developed a variety of them to help them do just that.
An example of this is the interpreter architecture pattern, which helps interpret a programming language. It uses a tree-like structure to evaluate expressions. This pattern is a little less common, as it involves creating a new programming language and handling an existing one. However, it’s a great example of how to divide a long and complex user request into smaller chunks and then distribute it across multiple servers. This can help to ensure that the work is done faster.
Another example of an event-driven architecture pattern is the blackboard pattern. This pattern deals primarily with events, and has four major components: event sources and listeners. Events are published on an event bus channel and listeners subscribe to these channels. This separation of functions allows for efficient reuse of code and can be useful when there is no deterministic solution to a problem. It consists of three components: a core system and a set of plug-in modules.
Stack-based architecture is the next type of architecture pattern. This pattern is used to distribute tasks among multiple parts of a software. For example, BitTorrent is a file-sharing network that uses the peer-to-peer architecture pattern. Its decentralized design makes it possible to transfer large files and allows users to work on them simultaneously. It can also be used in VoIP (voice over IP) products, multimedia applications, and cryptocurrency-based services.
Object-oriented approach to software architecture
Using an object-oriented approach to software architecture makes the design of distributed systems easier. In this approach, objects are defined by the data they contain and their associated behaviors. Classes are user-defined entities that group objects of similar meaning and behavior. An object model describes an object’s behavior and state, and the code that defines that behavior stays the same no matter which instance of the object requires it. A library book’s status, for example, is defined by its status attribute, but the behavior is unique to that object.
Object-oriented design starts by considering use case diagrams to identify the classes and functions to implement. From here, the design decomposition proceeds at a class and function level. This design style is generally used for applications that are computationally-sensitive or evolve over time. The main goal of object-oriented design is to create a high-quality system with minimal complexity. However, the OO design style is not for every project.
Object-oriented software architecture is often described in a four-view model. The fourth view defines a software architecture’s data structures. The +1 view verifies that all four views work together. The four views represent different levels of the software life cycle. For example, in a team training exercise, the 5000-statement object diagram is used to design a 50,000-statement dynamics simulator. It provides a unified framework that encapsulates concepts from Yourdin and others. This approach also handles concurrency and decomposition down to the functional level.
The OODA method allows developers to combine hierarchical structuring with object-oriented abstractions. Object-oriented architecture benefits from groupings into Abstract Data Types, which are equivalent to classes in object-oriented programming languages. In addition to the flexibility of OODA, the HOOD method has an advantage that is difficult to override. This technique is best suited for software architectures where the objects are related to each other.
A layered software architecture is one that is composed of separate modules or levels. One example is Gmail, which is divided into three layers, each with different missions and handling different processes. Gmail is an excellent example of a layered architecture, and its user interaction layer interacts with users and defines how the application looks. A monolithic architecture is difficult to scale and often has a high Mean-Time-To-Recovery.
The application layer consists of visible functionality provided by the system. This is another layered pattern issue. Each component in a layer must only depend on the services provided by a layer below it. For example, component A may use entities provided by component B through data accesses or method calls. The responsibility principle helps define the relationship between each layer and its lower levels. A layered software architecture will naturally contain a few instances of each of these two scenarios.
The main benefit of a layered architecture is that it allows you to separate your application’s components into smaller parts. Each layer provides a specific service to the higher level. Layered architecture is also scalable. Companies such as NetSuite, Oracle, and Microsoft utilize this technology for many of their applications. Layered architecture can be beneficial for projects of all sizes. Listed below are some advantages and disadvantages of a layered architecture.
Business logic is located in the application layer, which separates the application and the database. This separate layer allows for a logical separation of the two and offers more security for the database layer. It also helps to hide unnecessary methods or logic from the business layer. Layered software architecture can be more complex than a monolithic architecture. Therefore, it’s crucial to understand how layered software architecture works in practice. In short, it’s a method of development that focuses on maximizing performance and scaling.
Service-oriented software architecture is a pattern of software design that separates the “what” and the “how” of applications. Consumers of services look at them as endpoints that support particular formats of requests. Developers should consider this when designing a service, because it should eventually support multiple applications. As the number of applications grows, service designers should make changes to accommodate the increased number of users. The key to achieving service-oriented architecture is to plan ahead.
The primary feature of a service is location transparency. When a service is consumed, the consumer is not aware of its location until it is registered. This feature of dynamic binding makes it possible for the service implementation to be moved around easily to improve its availability and performance. In addition, a load balancer can be used to forward requests to multiple service instances. In this way, a service can be implemented by multiple developers in different locations without causing excessive performance and availability issues.
Another key component of service-oriented architecture is modularity. Since services are independent units, it is easier to test and debug them than monolithic applications. In addition, service-oriented architecture also makes it possible to build more reliable products. The major drawback of SOA is its complexity. Because each service must deliver messages on time, the complexity of maintaining the architecture is quite high. There is a significant investment upfront in development, technology, and people to properly manage the architecture.
Another characteristic of service-oriented architecture is the fact that each service is based on a specific business concept, rather than a broad set. Its object-based implementation supports the use of coarse-grained objects and is designed to be more efficient in network environments. However, it can also be difficult to scale as distributed systems typically require many different machines, which can be slow. Service-oriented architectures aim to improve network performance by using coarse-grained objects instead of fine-grained objects.